What is blood pressure? All you need to know

The blood pressure It is the flow of blood against the walls of the arteries. This process begins with the heartbeat and its pumping of blood through the arteries to various organs of the body.

When the body is active, the heart beats and pumps more blood, known as systolic pressure. On the other hand, when we are at rest and the heart does not need to pump a greater amount of blood, it is called low blood pressure, called diastolic pressure.

How is blood pressure measured?

Either by a specialist doctor or by your own means, a cuff is used to measure blood pressure, which is placed around the arm, and which is inflated to a certain point to measure pressure. This measurement is displayed in mm Hg, that is, millimeters of mercury.

We rely on two numbers for the stress reading. The systolic number that will be above the diastolic and vice versa, for example 120/80. If the systolic is above the diastolic, it is a high pressure, and if the diastolic is above, it is a low pressure.

The ideal is to measure the tension in both arms because different readings tend to appear.

What happens if the pressure is too high?

When the amount of blood that is pumped is very high and the arteries are narrow, there is a greater tension in the body, damaging the heart and blood vessels.

Having hypertension or hypotension, They are frequent conditions that can be asymptomatic for years, but with serious consequences for the body’s health.

The hypertension

When blood pressure values ​​are high, there are risks of hypertension, as a disease that does not present direct symptoms except for the patient’s blood pressure reading.

It is not a serious disease if the respective care is maintained, but hypertension triggers cardiovascular problems, heart and kidney failure, as well as strokes.

Some of the symptoms in hypertension are:

  • Headaches
  • Nasal bleeding
  • Difficulty breathing

When the doctor discovers that the patient has high blood pressure, it is advisable to include medication in the routine to regulate it.

There are two types of hypertension:

  • Primary: it appears as we age and is the most common in people.
  • Secondary: It is caused by the intake of certain medications.


As opposed to high blood pressure, hypotension is the presence of very low blood pressure, which implies that different organs of the body do not receive enough blood, triggering other health problems.

The causes of its appearance are different in each patient. Some of the frequent cases are:

  • Severe allergic reactions
  • Sudden loss of blood
  • Aggravated infections
  • Side effects of a heart attack

Similarly, there are two types of hypotension:

  • Orthostatics: when there is a sudden and violent change in the position of the body, for example, getting out of bed quickly after a period of rest. It usually lasts a few minutes and immediately disappears.
  • Postprandial orthostatics: It occurs after every meal and usually affects older adults or Parkinson’s patients.

In addition, there are certain foods and medicines that can lower blood pressure. That is why, if the person tends to have hypotension, they should be careful to ingest the following:

  • Antidepressants
  • Diuretics
  • Spirits

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