What is a revolution

What is a revolution?

The word revolution refers to a concept that has application in different areas, but that in the social, political and economic field, and according to history, it is related to sudden changes or radical transformations that lead to violent events.

It is possible that when speaking of revolution, violence, force, death or abrupt changes are not necessarily implied, as in the cases of the scientific revolution and the technological revolution. Rather, the fact implies changes agreed upon, programmed and accepted by those who will be affected.

A revolution from the political and social point of view implies, and this has been demonstrated by the innumerable revolutions that have occurred in different countries of the world, various and profound changes in the structure of power.

Starting with what it has been to come to power by force and eliminate everything established, from the institutional aspect, even the way to subdue those who oppose or generate resistance to the proposed changes.

Few political revolutions have been peaceful; one of the most emblematic and recent was the one that took place in the German Democratic Republic or East Germany, years 1989-1990. This process consisted in the formation of a social and political change that led to the last stage of the Unified Socialist Party of the GDR.

The process It concluded with the transition to a model of parliamentary democracy that led to the reunification of East Germany and West or West Germany, but that it had started with decisions “free of violence, protests and successful demonstrations.”

Revolutions throughout history

The origin of a revolution as the cause of a movement has been the subject of study and discussion by sociologists, psychologists, political scientists and other social scientists. And history has shown that in all revolutions, the process is born out of the need for change.

Social, technological, political or economic, the truth is that in these areas revolutions have had a trigger for violence. This occurs due to the imposition of changes and the resistance to assimilate, follow and adapt them.

The most emblematic revolutions, especially in the 18th century, are:

The Revolution of the Thirteen Colonies: a revolutionary process that was marked by the desire for the decolonization of several colonies of Great Britain in North America. It was the armed conflict between the 13 colonies of North America and the colonial power of the British crown.

Of these transformations the new nation that today is known as the United States of America emerged and that was established in history with the Declaration of Independence, on July 4, 1776.

There were not few battles, British occupations and wars that were developed to achieve independence and the writing of the Constitution, in September 1787.

This step that the United States took was decisive in starting another revolutionary feat that occurred in 1789, known as the French Revolution. This event is a milestone in history, as it involved profound political and social changes, as well as several violent clashes.

The French Revolution: it really impacted France with the confrontations that it produced and that spread to other European countries. Those struggles were carried out by defenders and opponents of the Old Regime and concluded with the coup d’état in 1799 that Napoleon Bonaparte gave.

In Latin America: as well The replicas of these revolutionary movements were felt and the independence feats of the colonies of Spain began. and Portugal, known as bourgeois or liberal revolutions.

These social and political revolutions that They sought to free themselves from Spanish colonization, they meant armed conflicts that left great devastations. The movements that were played all in favor of freedom, were called patriots, and faced the royalists, who were those who defended the Spanish Monarchy.

All the countries that achieved independence and the formation of their republics, experienced civil wars or a varied combination of different forms of war that left their populations decimated.

The October Revolution: also known as the Bolshevik Revolution or as the Great October Socialist Revolution, It is also an important historical event, which occurred in Petrograd, Republic of Russia.

One hundred years have passed since this event, which occurred in October 1917, and that forever changed the history, not only of Russia, but of a good part of Eastern European countries.

The origin of this revolution was in the profound political and social reforms demanded by the population, on the one hand, and on the other, the determination of the provisional government to continue the war, which produced the acceptance of the Bolshevik program.

The Bolsheviks were the most radical political group in the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party led by Vladimir Lenin, then Stalin, whose slogans were “Peace, bread and land” and “All power to the Soviets”, which were the councils.

Those social struggles of the revolution gave rise to the “first workers’ state in history”, which led to various social changes such as the nationalization decrees, the agrarian reform, and the progressive dissolution of the capitalist system and its consequent replacement by a “planned economy” system.

Likewise, the right of autonomy to the nationalities conquered by the Russian Empire emerged, which led to the formation of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in 1922.

Other revolutions of the 20th century

The revolutions that brought about social, political and economic changes involved violence, armed movements, deaths and real revolts that involved the participation of the military, civilians, security forces, etc.

Some of those revolutions are:

  • The Great Leap Forward Revolution:
    Occurring between 1958 and 1961, it involved the large-scale economic and social reform plans of the Chinese revolution, the Hungarian Revolution of the Workers’ Councils, among others, and which produced millions of deaths from hunger.
  • The Cuban revolution: that in 1959 brought Fidel Castro to power. What began as a guerrilla movement, it ended the rapprochement with the USSR, marked an anti-American and anti-capitalist position and aligned itself with the socialist bloc.

The balance of this revolution, so far, has been:

  • 2.5 million people in exile
  • 20 thousand drowned people fleeing to Miami
  • 7,365 dead in different events
  • 5,775 people shot in the first years of the revolution
  • 16 killed on hunger strike
  • 209 dead due to denial of medical assistance
  • 20,000 political prisoners in recent years.

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