George Orwell

George Orwell Biography

George Orwell was a British journalist and writer, who was born on June 25, 1903, in Motihari, a British colony of India, British Raj.

As a writer he became a chronicler, literary critic, novelist, and essayist. His real name was Eric Arthur Blair.

His father was Richard Walmsley Blair, administrator of the Colonial Government of India and his mother was Ida Mabel Limouzin Blair, born in Burma, of French descent. Eric had two sisters, one older and one younger than him.

Eric Arthur Blair studied in England, first at St. Cyprians School and then at Eton College, a male student college near Windsor. At the age of 19, he went to Burma and is part of the Imperial Indian Police in Burma from 1922 to 1927.

Returning to England in 1927, he spends his time between London and Paris, in extreme poverty, practically living as a beggar. From this hard experience, his first renowned work emerged: “Sin blanca en París y en Londres” in 1933, where he shows his precarious situation in both European capitals.

That’s the first time Eric Arthur Blair use the pseudonym of George Orwell, seeking to hide from his family what he had experienced firsthand.

Being part of the Imperial Police of India, served as experience, to write “The Days in Burma” in 1934. Two years later he married Eileen O’Shaughnessy, and then they adopted a child, Richard Horatio Blair. George had no biological children.

In 1937, he portrayed the life of British miners in “The Road to Wigan Pier.” In 1945, his wife Eileen died during an operation. Then, in 1949, he would remarry Sonia Brownell.

His most recognized fiction novels, he wrote one, “The Farm Rebellion” in 1945 and the other, “1984” in 1948.

George Orwell died in London, England, on January 21, 1950, at the age of 46, due to Tuberculosis.

Contents

Literary work of George Orwell

The literary work of George Orwell It is composed of articles and stories, from his journalistic period, which he interspersed with novels and a large number of essays:

  • Articles and stories, product of his work as a journalist:
    • Sin Blanca in Paris and London (Down and Out in Paris and London, 1933).
    • The Road to Wigan Pier (The Road to Wigan Pier, 1937).
    • Tribute to Catalonia (Homage to Catalonia, 1938).
  • Novels:
    • The Days of Burma (Burmese Days, 1934).
    • The Clergyman’s Daughter (A Clergyman’s Daughter, 1935).
    • May the aspidistra not die (Keep the Aspidistra Flying, 1936).
    • Going up for air (Coming Up for Air, 1939).
    • Rebelion on the farm (Animal Farm, 1945).
    • 1984 (Nineteen eighty-four, 1948).
    • Some of his many Essays are:
    • A quarter penny newspaper
    • The shelter
    • A hanging
    • In the teal
    • Inn houses
    • Rudyard kipling
    • Kill an elephant
    • Memories of a bookseller
    • In defense of the novel
    • Discovering the Spanish cake
    • Why I joined the Independent Labor Party
    • Democracy in the British Army.

George Orwell was very prolific in essays and of them, attract attention, his essays on social policyas they have a clarity unprecedented in English literature.

Honors given to George Orwell

Ironically, distinctions given to George Orwell were awarded to his two main novels posthumously:

  • In 1984: “Prometheus Hall of Fame” for “1984”. This award recognizes authors of classic libertarian science fiction works in any broadcast medium.
  • In 1996: Retro Hugo Award for “Rebellion on the farm” (1945). This award is given to works that are fifty years old and still relevant.
  • In 1998: Locus Survey, 21st best novel for “1984”. This award is awarded to the best works or authors of a given period.
  • In 2011: “Prometheus Hall of Fame” for “Farm Rebellion.”

Dystopia

The dystopia is the opposite of utopia. In other words, dystopia is the opposite side, the negative, of utopia.

While utopia idealizes and projects systems and doctrines of perfect, functional and suitable societies.

For its part, dystopia It explores reality to anticipate certain forms of society’s conduct, which can lead to totalitarian, unjust and frightening systems.

Some of the classic books that best reflect the dystopias
are:

  • 1984” of George Orwell, cataloged as the dystopian novel par excellence.
  • “Brave New World” by Aldous Huxley.
  • “Fahrenheit 451” by Ray Bradbury.

That is how, George Orwell in his novel “1984”Shows a nation that exercises rigorous state control, in order to have an organized, happy and compliant society. And in his place, he obtains a totalitarian regime, which represses the individual and curtails his freedoms for a supposed general welfare.

The Farm Rebellion and 1984

Both are fictional novels that describe a new type of society totally controlled by bureaucratic and political methods.

The Farm Rebellion

It is a novel published in 1945 that parodied Soviet socialism, through a group of animals, who on a farm rebel against the owners. During this rebellion, the farm animals create their own government, after expelling the humans. This new government turns into something worse: a tyranny.

Some figures in Russian politics, such as Lenin, Stalin, and Trotsky, are represented by animals.

Without a doubt, this novel is an attack on the Soviet political situation of the moment and a harsh criticism of Stalin himself. With this novel, George Orwell aimed to denounce totalitarian regimes, such as the Nazi and the Soviet.

1984

Although this novel was written in 1948, it is set in 1984, the year of the future, in which George Orwell imagined a fictional story, which is a nightmare.

The protagonist, Winston Smith, works in the “Ministry of Truth”, a unit in charge of controlling information. In this “Ministry of Truth”, historical documents are manipulated, destroyed and / or modified, so that the events of the past resemble the official story that the State wishes to tell.

One day Winston meets Julia and they start a love affair, contravening established laws and being the object of a gaze that penetrates everything, including intimacy. This look is that of the “Big Brother” or Maximum Political Leader, who is the representation of power, so they try to fight against: “The one who sees everything and controls everything.”

1984” is a dystopia against totalitarian regimes and is undoubtedly a great plea against totalitarianism.

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