Depression: symptoms, causes and treatments

Depression is one of the diseases that most affects people worldwide. In fact, according to the WHO, 4% of the population suffers from this condition. The most prone sectors correspond to the elderly and young.

It is a condition that must be attacked immediately. It should not be underestimated, as it can have devastating consequences. Next, we will talk about the symptoms, causes and ways of prevention.

What does science say about depression?

The term comes from the Latin “depressio”, its translation means oppression, dejection or shrinking. It corresponds to a psychological and psychiatric diagnosis, characterized by the presence of emotions of unhappiness, discouragement, guilt. Sometimes it helps to prevent the normal development of daily activities.

It is probable that there are disorders to a lesser or greater degree. Similarly, are accompanied by anxiety. According to experts, it corresponds to a syndrome that interferes in the affective area. It is expressed through cognitive, volitional or somatic affections. To make the diagnosis, a clinical study must be done. Above all, to differentiate from anxiety disorders.

Symptoms of depression

In general, the person faces constant episodes of sadness, isolation and decay. Symptoms can vary, depending on the degree or level of the disease:

  • Inability for enjoyment.
  • Lack of energy.
  • Pathological sadness.
  • Thoughts of suicide
  • Irritability.
  • Feelings of guilt.
  • Pessimism.
  • Apathy and low mood.

Similarly, it is possible to classify the symptoms as follows:

  • Affective type: anxiety, bad thoughts, guilt and hopelessness.
  • Cognitive periods: forgetfulness, lack of concentration and indecisions.
  • Somatic periods: appetite and weight changes, hypersomnia, insomnia, sexual diffusion, headache, agitation, chest pain, gastric problems, among others.

Why do we fall into depression?

The prevailing set of apathy is known as depression. In addition, it is present in pathology somatic, volitional and cognitive symptoms. For this reason, it is a global physical and at the same time psychological condition, which places special emphasis on the affective area.

This disease begins at any age, although it is concentrated in young people 15 years of age and older. Depending on the age of the patient, the symptoms vary. In the case of young people, their characteristics are fundamentally behavioral. While adults, they tend to experience purely somatic changes.

What Causes Depression?

The causes are many, however, biochemistry helps to understand some cases. Therefore, some are mentioned:

  • Autoimmune responses: corresponds to a table related to immuno-regulatory processes in a negative way. The cytokines they intervene in the behaviors of depression. It affects the central nervous system, causing behaviors typical of depression. In fact, patients receiving treatment for Hepatitis C are likely to develop depression.
  • Psychosocial environment: it is frequently related to stress, psychological trauma. Above all, for those who are exposed to conflictive situations in childhood.
  • Genetic factors: It is likely that the aforementioned levels are so high for hereditary reasons.
  • Emotional losses: the death of a loved one is the most common cause, as is a couple’s separation.
  • Abrupt changes: The loss or change of a job can also play a role. Removals, change of partner. Generally, it happens due to not having adaptive capacities.
  • Obesity: the social influence by the stereotype of the physical form, represents one of the main problems. Causing important changes in diet, which are even a reference to eating disorders such as bulimia and anorexia.

Clinical pictures of depression

This condition is classified into three types, which we detail below:

Higher grade

It refers to a combination of various symptoms that can interfere with the development of daily activities. In this category are mentioned: sleep, study, work. All of the above, under normal circumstances turn out to be pleasant. Although it is considered a disease that only happens once, there is no exception for relapses.

Persistent depressive disorder or dysthymia

It is less serious, but the symptoms they usually stay for a long time. On the other hand, the disease is not limiting for people to carry out their daily activities. Likewise, it is recurrent and its appearance may be experienced several times in your life.

Bipolar disorder or PMD

Its prevalence is not as high as the previous ones. It is identified by changing moods, which can be triggered in a matter of seconds. These changes are sometimes abrupt, but the most common is that they are developed gradually.


Treating depression requires studies to determine the cause of the condition. In this way, the most effective treatment can be determined.

The constant analyzes of this disease have yielded promising advances, among which are:


Specialists often prescribe antidepressants. They are indicated by psychiatrists. These medicines have been shown to be effective in severe symptoms or psychotic depression. Generally, the effect wears off in a week or two. As it is provided, its effectiveness increases, which is estimated in two months, depending on each case.


Patients with depression should seek recurrent therapies, including 10 and 20 weeks. In this treatment, specialists allow patients to pose problems. In addition, they provide the correct tools to solve them. Systematic sessions yield favorable results. Impersonal, cognitive, behavioral, brief, or emotion-focused psychotherapy techniques are also likely to be applied.

Other measures

Among the actions that can be established, in conjunction with the treatment indicated by the specialist are:

  • Sports: allows to reduce symptoms. It is recommended to practice at least three days a week. The patient can choose to practice his favorite sports discipline, such as walking, jogging, cycling. Contact with the environment and fresh air favors speedy recovery.
  • Support from the environment: the people around the affected person contribute greatly to the improvement. In this sense, they must promote a calm environment, away from conflicts. Similarly, it is necessary to avoid judgments and criticisms that can alter behavior and cause a relapse.

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